Theo van Doesburg, pseudonym of Christian Emil Marie Küpper (born August 30, 1883, Utrecht, Netherlands—died March 7, 1931, Davos, Switzerland), Dutch painter, decorator, poet, and art theorist who was a leader of the De Stijl movement.
Originally van Doesburg intended to pursue a career in the theatre, but he turned to painting about 1900. He worked in Post-Impressionist and Fauvist styles until 1915, when he discovered Piet Mondrian’s work, which convinced van Doesburg to paint geometric abstractions of subjects from nature. His paintings, with their strict use of vertical and horizontal shapes and primary colours, closely resembled Mondrian’s until about 1920. In 1917 van Doesburg was instrumental in forming the De Stijl group of artists, and he also founded the avant-garde art review De Stijl (a publication that was continued until 1931). Among the artists involved with De Stijl was the Dutch architect J.J.P. Oud, for whom van Doesburg first designed stained-glass windows in 1916. His collaborations with architects continued throughout his career, as he went on to design more stained glass, as well as floor tiles and overall colour schemes.
Van Doesburg turned his attention away from painting around 1920, focusing instead on the promotion of De Stijl in Germany and France. He lectured at the Weimar Bauhaus from 1921 to 1923, and his De Stijl theories subsequently influenced the Modernist architects Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. While in Germany, van Doesburg developed an interest in Dada art after meeting the artist Kurt Schwitters; using the alias I.K. Bonset, van Doesburg exhibited as a Dadaist in Holland in 1923 and published the Dada art review Mechano.
Van Doesburg returned to painting around 1924, at which time he decided to introduce the diagonal into his compositions to increase their dynamic effect. He named his new approach “elementarism,” and in 1926 he published a manifesto explaining it in De Stijl. Mondrian so disapproved of the concept that he rejected the De Stijl movement. In 1931 van Doesburg was involved in the formation of the Abstraction-Création association, a group of artists who advocated pure abstraction.
Highly influenced by Wassily Kandinsky, van Doesburg shifted his style of painting from one that emphasized less of a direct reflection of everyday life and one that placed more importance on a conceptual style that favored a simplistic geometric style. A Dutch artist, van Doesburg led the artistic style movement “De Stijl” into popularity and influenced graphic designers for many years to come with his theories, which conveyed the idea that there was a collective experience of reality that could be tapped as a medium of communication.
Van Doesburg moved to Weimar, Germany in hopes of impressing the directer of the Bauhaus, Walter Gropius. Gropius did not directly oppose his ideas, but did not accept him onto the faculty of the Bauhaus. In reaction to this, Van Doesburg positioned his studio directly next to the Bahaus and attracted many students with the ideas he promoted, most of which were developed out of the ideas of Constructivism, Dadaism and De Stijl.
It was during these times that Van Doesburg formed a tight bond with the artist Piet Mondrian. And, in 1923, Van Doesburg moved to Paris so that he could communicate directly with Mondrian. However, the two were very much polar opposites in character and it resulted in the dissolution of their friendship. It has been speculated that the breakdown came as a result of a disagreement about the directions of lines in their paintings. Van Doesburg moved to Switzerland in 1931, due to his declining health, and it was there that he died, on March 7th.
Art historian Nancy J. Troy discusses Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg’s roles as founder and evangelist, respectively, of the modern art movement known as De Stijl: